2016 Aviation Business Conference | Gathering in Washington During Interesting Times

June 20, 2016

NATA members attending the association’s second annual Aviation Business Conference are arriving in Washington, D.C. at an interesting time. Congress will still be in session but can already see on its horizon July 15th, the date it will adjourn for the two national political conventions and its annual summer recess. Returning shortly after Labor Day, Congress will meet for only a few short weeks before adjourning to campaign in advance of the November 8th general election.

Not by coincidence, July 15th is also the date of the expiration of the FAA’s current authorization. On the House side, Chairman Shuster’s (R-PA) proposal to create an air traffic corporation continues to languish due to objections from other congressional committees, conservative Republicans, and virtually the entire House Democratic Caucus. NATA continues to voice its strong objections to the corporation concept at any and all venues that provide us the opportunity to discuss the dangers it poses to general aviation. Like presidential candidates, NATA has been on the road, updating the aviation business community in Florida, Wisconsin, Illinois, South Carolina, Indiana and Texas on the status of the Shuster proposal. We also continue to work the issue at the national level, educating the press and appearing at public policy forums here in Washington, D.C., to rebut the outrageous claims of the airline interests campaigning for ATC corporatization.

I am also pleased to report that in April the United States Senate took a different, more hopeful path than the House, approving by a vote of 95-3 a bipartisan FAA bill that does not include provisions to create an ATC corporation. The legislation instead embraces NATA’s long-stated belief that Congress should build upon its previous work and continue to improve the consistency of FAA decisions across its offices and regions, streamline the FAA certification process to better reflect today’s pace of innovation, and assist the agency in operating as efficiently as possible.

The Senate’s action now puts the impetus for further action in the hands of House Transportation Committee Chairman Shuster to decide whether or not to continue to press forward on his proposal to create a user fee-funded, air traffic control corporation, accept the Senate proposal, or simply extend the FAA’s authorization beyond its current expiration on July 15th. Senator John Thune (R-SD), Chairman of the Senate Commerce Committee, who steered the legislation through the Senate, has publically expressed his hope there will be no more extensions and that the House will give serious consideration to the bipartisan approach taken by the Senate.

This puts NATA members in Washington, D.C. this June smack dab in the middle of it all. Our annual fly-in on June 9th will once again feature key aviation policymakers sharing their perspectives on the FAA reauthorization debate. We are also fortunate that once again Tom Hendricks and the leaders of the other general aviation associations will brief you in advance of your trip to the Capitol Building. And, of course, we will also gather informally that evening on Capitol Hill with aviation policymakers and their staffs for our annual industry reception.

However, the Aviation Business Conference is more than about politics. For that reason, we will be joined by TSA Administrator Peter Neffenger, who will discuss the security challenges facing our nation. FAA Associate Administrator for Aviation Safety Peggy Gilligan will be on hand to answer your questions about the FAA’s regulatory agenda. Finally, the conference will be packed with sessions providing insights on the state of the industry and the latest in effective business and safety practices.

So bring some good walking shoes (we can never guarantee the operating state of our subway), your questions and your insights. We look forward to seeing you in our nation’s capital!

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs (republished from Q2 2016 Aviation Business Journal)


The Lightning Legislation

April 22, 2016

In my almost three decades of experience on—or working with— Capitol Hill, I have come to the conclusion that Congress only has two speeds—glacial or lightning. In most instances, no matter how common sense or progressive the policy change you seek, one is resigned to the fact that it may take several sessions of Congress in order to achieve a policy goal. The typical holdup: timing. In other words, for various reasons, the stars just do not align—even if a proposal is recognized as helpful and noncontroversial. This is what made it especially satisfying last year when, after years of kicking the can down the road, NATA and other major associations in Washington were able to secure two important long-term changes in investment tax policy after years of short-term extensions.

As you could no doubt tell from the President’s column, when it comes to this year’s FAA reauthorization, we are in the equivalent of a congressional lightning round—and that’s when you have to be on your guard.

After years of seemingly endless policy forums, congressional “listening sessions,” and official hearings, the House Transportation Committee put pen to paper, drafted an FAA reauthorization bill, and released it for the world to see in early February 2016. At one level, the bill [H.R. 4441, the Aviation Innovation, Reform and Reauthorization (AIRR Act)] offered no surprises. The Chairman of the Transportation Committee, Representative Bill Shuster (R-PA), has been upfront with his intentions since the summer of 2015. Recall, he shared his thinking with NATA members at the 2015 Aviation Business Conference. Chairman Shuster believes that, despite the encouragement and additional authorities provided by Congress over the years, the FAA’s handling of modernization and operations is too broken to be fixed and offered his solution–separating air traffic control from the FAA and operating it as a not-for-profit, user fee-funded corporation.

We respectfully disagree. Changes in the relationship between the agency’s air traffic control operation and its safety regulatory component should be carefully viewed in terms of the problem to be addressed, and whether the solution will continue to maintain a stable, safe and efficient system that protects access for all users of our system. Creating a potentially adversarial relationship between the remaining portion of FAA and an air traffic control corporation will create unintended consequences. In the end, we concluded that, while this has been a healthy policy debate, focused policy initiatives will better achieve the goal of a more efficient and flexible agency, well positioned to maintain America’s dominance in aviation.

The general rule in Washington: the faster you try to move a piece of major legislation, the more likely the goal is to avoid delving into its specifics. So, you know what came next. The aviation community was expected to digest an almost 300-page proposal—including a major shift in the FAA’s organization and funding—and be prepared to share its views on it with congressional decision makers at a hearing one week later. Even more problematic, the bill was voted on by the House Transportation Committee the very next day.

NATA swiftly posted our analysis of the bill on our website. NATA staff briefed our Board, Presidents Council and our committees on its implications and provided lawmakers with testimony. The night before markup, we waded through approximately 100 filed amendments looking for the good and the bad. We also found time to rebut the contention made at the hearing on the legislation that charter operations were largely high-end passenger jets like G5s or G6s and their paying user fees was “fair.”

The AIRR Act survived the committee and vote — barely. The vote was along party lines and two pilot members, Republicans Sam Graves (R-MO) and Todd Rokita (R-IN), joined all Transportation Democrats in opposition. The next step in the Transportation Committee’s legislative blitz, a vote on the House floor was slated to occur shortly after committee consideration. That was when, with your help, the proposal started taking flak from all sides. The general aviation community, particularly NATA members, weighed in with their elected representatives through our special webpage (www.nata.aero/nocorporation). Facing united Democratic opposition, concerns from other major House committees impacted by the proposal, and conservatives with grave suspicions about whether such a proposal was really just an open-ended invitation to increase travel costs through user fees— the House Leadership chose, at least for the moment, to shelve the proposal and turn to other priorities.

As Tom mentioned in his column, the shame in all this is: absent the air traffic control corporation proposal, the remainder of the AIRR Act represents a serious, bipartisan effort to help the FAA operate in a more efficient manner. Thanks to the help of NATA’s committees, we proposed to policy makers a number of ideas that have, in fact, been incorporated in the legislation. However, the good in this case does not outweigh the threat the legislation poses to aviation businesses and, indeed, to all of general aviation.

Though the AIRR Act appears bottled up for the moment, know that corporation proponents will not just walk away, they have sunk too much time and energy into the effort. So if you have not already, I urge you to go to our website (www.nata.aero/ nocorporation) and engage with your Congressman and Senators on this issue.

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs (republished from Q1 2016 Aviation Business Journal)


Airlines…..Unplugged

April 1, 2016

I had the opportunity last week to attend the U.S. Chamber’s annual Aviation Summit. “Aviation” in the title is really a misnomer. Despite the fact the Chamber has member companies with corporate flight departments, and even a wide array of other aviation businesses, make no mistake about it — this was an airline conference. The summit’s lack of balance was startling; this was a vehicle for airlines to get their message out and other viewpoints need not apply. Comfortable in what was clearly an enabling setting, airline executives felt empowered to say what they really think.

The leaders of the so-called low cost carriers were in lockstep about the dangers posed by four airlines with 80-percent domestic market share. Through their dialogue, they invited us to peak behind the curtain for a look at the impact of global joint ventures, noting for example three mega-alliances controlling 87 percent of the transatlantic market. They called upon the Department of Transportation to revisit these anti-trust waivers and immunized joint ventures…..and in the next breath they called upon Congress to adopt the Shuster proposal to create an airline dominated air traffic control corporation.

This is a demonstration of the old political adage, “where you are is where you sit.” Market concentration, it appears, is dangerous….unless of course you are part of it. This inability to either see or understand other perspectives is disappointing from people who are seemingly aware of the dangers created by market concentration. Even if we all saw creating an air traffic control corporation as a good idea, which we don’t, why would aviation businesses willingly sign up for a proposal that leaves their future costs to be determined by airlines?

However, the low cost carriers were just the warmup act, next came the airline association and a representative CEO from the big carriers. These speeches were carefully orchestrated and honed to two messages. First, congressional policymakers who offer pro-consumer proposals related to airline seats or pricing of various airline fees are intent on nothing less than re-regulating the airline industry. The airlines’ view of consumer legislation was best summarized by the head of their trade association who told the crowd, “Members of Congress, with all due respect, if you want to run an airline, buy some planes, hire some employees and sell some tickets.” Well, to paraphrase Ricky Bobby, he did say, “with all due respect.”

The wrath of these airline leaders was especially reserved for those who dare oppose their plan to create an air traffic control corporation. Those in opposition to the corporation are nothing more than “entrenched interests fighting to maintain their advantage.” Their response to the bipartisan work of Senate Commerce Committee Chairman John Thune and Ranking Member Bill Nelson that did not include a proposal to corporatize air traffic control, “The Senate took the easy way out.”

Worse are the half-statements that come along with addresses of these sort. For example, we were told airlines believe in a user fee-funded corporation so much they are willing to write their own checks to the corporation for the air traffic services they use. How altruistic. Except of course the real cost will be borne by the customer and the corporation proposal neatly removes accountability for those costs from a consumer’s direct scrutiny — let alone the costs the airlines will attempt to shift to general aviation. Other whoppers rehashed in front of a largely adoring crowd included the suggestion that air traffic controllers are using 1950’s technology, or that 60 countries currently operating corporatized systems are in some way more efficient or safer than ours.

Airlines also tried to dispel the notion they don’t want to run the corporation by noting the composition of the air traffic control board was changed late in the House committee process with the addition of two more seats for general aviation, bringing GA to the same number of seats as the airlines. While no doubt equal in number, it’s arguable those seats are not equal in weight. The corporation CEO, who also holds a board vote, will undoubtedly feel the pressure of the four votes that represent the overwhelming amount of corporation funding. In addition, this is not a proposal that is yet set in stone.   Neatly forgotten by these airline leaders during the conference, their complaint to Congress that the original proposal already lacked a sufficient number of airline stakeholders, particularly given the representation from general aviation — stakeholders that in their view pay next to nothing. We should not expect the airlines to give up on their attempts to “perfect” the board’s composition.

I report all this to remind you that despite some press reports, the airline industry is not giving up. Between now and July 15th (when the current FAA reauthorization again expires) we must be vigilant and engaged with our elected lawmakers if we are to withstand the imposition of the airline worldview on consumers and general aviation.

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs


NATA 75: An Industry Voice Is More Important Than Ever

December 28, 2015

 

As we launch into our anniversary year, reading the excellent history of the association written by Paul Seidenman and David J. Spanovich (page 18) underscores just how important it is for aviation businesses to have a voice to represent them in the public policy arena. As the article demonstrates, NATA’s birth was directly linked to the future of civil aviation, when the association’s founders had the vision to join together and intervene at a critical juncture, not letting the military in effect—take over—American aviation. In fact, the article is replete with examples, large and small, of how the association’s intervention made a difference in supporting aviation businesses’ contin­ued growth in this vital, and uniquely American, part of our economy.

It is easy to understand the advantages of membership when viewed from a purely business perspective. Many NATA members, for example, take advantage of the association’s industry leading workers’ compensa­tion insurance program or perhaps its Safety 1st training. However, the need for a public policy presence is not something that is always readily apparent nor easily quantified.

Perhaps because of our history, NATA members see that need. In our recent membership survey, advocacy was rated as one of the most important aspects of membership. It is also borne out by the fact that when the call for help goes out to aviation businesses, NATA members respond.

Looking ahead to 2016 we, like our founders, continue to see challenges and opportunities for aviation busi­nesses. On our immediate horizon is the upcoming FAA reauthorization bill. While events in 2015, the leadership crisis that resulted in a new Speaker of the House, Paul Ryan, and the difficul­ties of financing a multi-year surface transportation bill, slowed down the FAA bill in Congress—make no mis­take about it—the airlines still want the keys to the air traffic control system.

In early December, Airlines for America (the trade group representing the major carriers) and the CEOs of the nation’s six major airlines were in Washington, D.C., talking to lawmak­ers about their desire to create an independent, user-fee funded air traffic control organization. Don’t think they are serious? When the world’s largest airline, Delta, announced it was leav­ing the trade group in a disagreement over this and other policies the airlines are pursuing, the remaining members waived the association’s required de­parture notice allowing Delta to leave immediately.

The idea of privatizing air traffic control has been one pursued by others as well, some frustrated by the pace of modernization, others concerned the congressional budget process has bro­ken down to the point where funding for the agency may no longer be able to keep up with the future needs of the system.

While NATA agrees the FAA could certainly stand the injection of more private sector practices, we view the unknowns associated with corporati­zation as simply too great to risk. Can such a proposal be safely implemented in a system many times larger and far more complex than any other in the world? Will its implementation set back the cause of modernization rather than enhance it? And what happens to general aviation, a uniquely American user not really a large factor elsewhere in the world? Will new costs and fees in effect deny your businesses and cus­tomers access to airports and airways necessary to your operating a viable business?

While a huge concern, I don’t want to leave you with the impression this is the sole issue confronting avia­tion businesses. We are still working to unwind a 2012 IRS opinion that concluded that aircraft management fees are “transportation” and therefore management service providers should be assessing the 7.5 percent commer­cial ticket tax on amounts paid for those services. We are also working as part of a broad national coalition to bring certainty to investment policy by making permanent bonus depreciation and Section 179 expensing. Finally, the NATA regulatory team is working across a myriad of issues, before the FAA, the TSA, and Customs, among others, looking to bring common-sense and your real world perspective to the issues under consideration by the exec­utive branch.

Our issues are not always defen­sive. Our committee members were instrumental in developing a positive agenda for the FAA reauthorization bill. In fact one agenda item, requiring the investigative arm of Congress, the Government Accountability Office, to conduct a study of diversions of non-commercial jet fuel tax revenues to the Highway Trust Fund, was just incorporated into the recently enacted surface transportation bill. We are also particularly proud of the ongoing effort by NATA and AAAE members to identify and address the issues that divide and can unite airports and their tenants.

So as Tom Hendricks says, our future is bright and getting brighter by the day. As we move into what could be a watershed year in aviation, stay involved, and stay engaged. In the end, you are aviation businesses best advocates!

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs


Speaker Boehner’s Parting Gift

November 2, 2015

No one could have predicted the circumstances under which Congress and the Administration were able to bring about last week’s long-term budget agreements.

The resignation announcement by House Speaker John Boehner immediately cleared the way for a bill funding the government through December 11th.  It also allowed the outgoing Speaker to “clean up the barn” and resolve potentially debilitating issues for incoming Speaker Paul D. Ryan.  In a move worthy of the climactic scene in The Godfather, outgoing Speaker Boehner settled political scores by successfully negotiating a two-year adjustment to federal discretionary spending levels and raising the nation’s debt ceiling through March, 2017.

This is good news for aviation.  As NATA’s President Tom Hendricks observed earlier in the week, the legislation addresses two threats to our industry – the ramifications of defaulting on our nation’s debts and a potential shutdown of the Federal Aviation Administration. Let’s look at the numbers behind the agreement and talk about what happens next.

The Deal

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 amends the discretionary spending caps (the 30% of federal spending directly appropriated by Congress on an annual basis) for fiscal years 2016 and 2017 as seen below:

Discretionary Spending Caps (in billions)
Old Cap FY16 Revised FY16 Old Cap FY17 Revised FY17
Defense $523 $548 $536 $551
Non-defense $493 $518 $503 $518
Total $1,016 $1,066 $1,039 $1,069

One interesting question is whether all parties involved will consider this a two-year spending deal.  After all, the agreement includes virtually no increase in spending between FY2016 and FY2017.  However, veteran appropriators have observed the 2013 Ryan-Murray deal had a similar tight spending level in year two and all parties involved lived within it.As you see, these levels represent increases of $50 billion and $30 billion respectively over the FY16 and FY17 spending levels established in 2011.  Recall that in his February budget request, President Obama proposed a $75 billion discretionary spending increase above the FY2016 caps.

Next Steps

So the chances of a government shutdown have been dramatically reduced but we are not completely out of the woods yet.

Remember, the current continuing resolution (CR) temporarily funds the government by continuing funding levels from the prior year, but it expires on December 11th.  The increases in overall discretionary spending provided in the agreement will allow congressional appropriators the budget ceiling needed to complete work on the FY2016 federal budget –including funding for the FAA.  However one issue still remains, will policy riders, typically in the form of prohibitions against certain types of spending, derail concluding work on the FY2016 budget?

Reports indicate that work on the spending bills has already begun and will likely result in the dreaded “omnibus” appropriation bill where the twelve separate spending bills will be rolled into one mega spending bill.

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs


A government shutdown? This week is just the warm-up.

September 28, 2015

The new fiscal year begins this Thursday, October 1st, and only the resignation of House Speaker John Boehner effective the end of October may head off a shutdown.  As we again approach the precipice of another government shutdown it’s reasonable to ask, how did we get here?  Readers of my occasional blogs on the budget process know that we were always in for a rough ride this year, as the President’s budget proposal sought $75 billion more in discretionary spending than is allowed under the Budget Control Act (chart below):

Discretionary Spending Caps (in billions)
Enacted FY15 Current Law FY16 President FY 16
 (proposed)
Defense $521 $523 $561
Non-defense $492 $493 $530
Total $1,013 $1,016 $1,091

Layered on top of an already difficult situation were press reports about the activities of Planned Parenthood.  These reports have had a galvanizing effect with some elements within Congress prepared to shut down the government rather than see the organization continue to receive federal funding.

This is no small matter for the aviation business community.  The 16-day shutdown in 2013 had huge practical implications for both aviation businesses and general aviation as a whole, including the shuttering of the FAA’s Aircraft Registry, FSDOs and a myriad of other elements of the FAA upon which the industry depends to safely operate.

It’s all about the votes.  Even if the House passes a funding bill that prohibits federal funding for Planned Parenthood, a vote in the Senate last week confirmed there are not enough votes for it in the Senate.  But let’s say it passed the Senate, it would still be vetoed by the President — and there are not enough votes in either chamber to override the President’s veto.  Outgoing Speaker Boehner noted yesterday: “We’ve got groups here in town, mem­bers of the House and Sen­ate here in town who whip people in­to a frenzy think­ing they can ac­com­plish things that they know—they know—can nev­er hap­pen.”

In the short term it appears we will escape a shut-down but it’s potentially just the warm-up for the main event in December.  Last week’s vote in the Senate, that demonstrated there is insufficient support for a prohibition on federal funding of Planned Parenthood, was the first step in a process that could lead to a Continuing Resolution, or CR, as we call it here in political Disneyland, through December 11th.  However, a CR only temporarily funds the government by continuing funding levels from the prior year.

In mid-December we will again have all the challenges outlined above plus a new one.  Just before Labor Day the Congressional Budget Office lobbed another bombshell in Congress’ lap, the nation’s debt ceiling will need to be raised before the end of the year.  As you can imagine, that’s a vote detested by lawmakers, and one that is often the magnet for those seeking dramatic policy prescriptions as the price of their support.

Of course, chaos always draws opportunists and it’s not just on the spending side.  Some will use the current budget situation as justification for the corporatization of air traffic control.  Only in Washington will a failure by our elected officials to perform their basic duties lead some to propose to radically alter the world’s largest, most complex and safest system.  Why stop at the FAA?  If the budget process is unalterably broken, perhaps we should privatize other aspects of government operation.  Rather than asking our elected leaders to do their jobs, let’s also privatize national defense.

For general aviation nothing good comes from privatization, unless you consider rising costs and denial of access to airways and airports good.  Realize though that even if air traffic control were to be separated from the FAA’s safety function, the agency operations upon which general aviation and aviation manufacturers depend will still be at risk during future budget showdowns.

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs


The Importance of FAA Reauthorizations

May 8, 2015

The 2013 sequester and government shutdown has sparked a discussion in Congress about whether to separate air traffic control from FAA’s safety function and run it as a quasi-government corporation.  This breakdown in the appropriations process was created by an impasse between the Congress and President about the level of overall government spending.  A similar impasse may emerge in the debate about FY2016 spending.  An air traffic control corporation, were it to be created, would most likely be contained in the upcoming FAA reauthorization legislation that is currently under development in both houses of Congress.  Let’s take a look at the difference between authorization and appropriations bills.  Both are important to aviation businesses but each type of bill performs a different function.

Appropriators will proudly tell you that their function is enshrined in the Constitution itself; “No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law (Article I, Section 9).”  Authorizations (and by extension reauthorizations) are a creation of House and Senate rules.  In the two-step congressional process for spending money, an agency or program must first be authorized in order to be eligible to receive an appropriation. According to the Congressional Research Service, “Authorization acts establish, continue, or modify agencies or programs.”[1]  Legislative committees are responsible for developing authorization legislation and the House Transportation and Infrastructure and Senate Commerce Committees are responsible for legislation that authorizes the functions and programs of the FAA.

The duration of an authorization can be for a fixed amount of time or open-ended.  Similarly, an authorization can be for a fixed amount of money or provide for “such sums as may be necessary.”  Securing an authorization does not guarantee the agency or program the full amount of the authorization.  The decision about how much money a program or agency will actually receive is within the purview of the House and Senate Appropriations Committee.  As we saw, the process for funding the FAA in FY2016 began last week with approval by the House Transportation Appropriations Subcommittee of the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development and Related Agencies Appropriations bill for FY2016.   A frequently asked question is whether there are unauthorized appropriations.  The answer is yes.  In fact, a January report from the Congressional Budget Office noted that in the current fiscal year about $294 billion was appropriated for programs and activities whose authorizations have expired.[2]

The FAA’s last reauthorization bill, the “FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012” (PL 112-95), authorized spending for the FAA’s major accounts and programs including NextGen for FY2012 through the end of FY2015.  Of particular interest to aviation business, the 2012 FAA reauthorization also contained a number of provisions aimed at accelerating the implementation of new technologies by improving the certification process and streamlining regulatory interpretation across the eight FAA regions, 10 aircraft certification offices, and 80 flight standards district offices.

The current authorization of FAA programs expires on September 30, 2015 and theoretically a lapse in authorization renders a program ineligible for appropriations.  Practically, that rarely happens as Congress will typically waive the authorization requirement and continue to fund the agency.  Recall that between 2007 and 2012 there were 23 short-term extensions of the FAA, a period when enacting a long-term reauthorization was seemingly bedeviled by various labor and airport competition issues.  Protracted lapses in authorization reduce congressional oversight and shift the governmental balance away from the legislative branch more firmly toward the executive branch.

This year’s FAA reauthorization bill poses both risk and opportunity for the general aviation community.  As we discussed in the opening, the 2013 government shutdown and sequestration have started a discussion about the future organization structure and funding of the FAA.  On this issue, NATA has told policymakers (link to ATC reform testimony) that while we should all support the injection of more private sector practices into the FAA, it is important how we manage any changes to the agency in order to maintain a stable, safe and efficient system that protects access for all users of our system.  The upcoming reauthorization presents lawmakers with an opportunity to make even clearer that the 24/7 operation of the air traffic control system is – like our defense – a national priority that should not be held hostage to political debates.

As we saw in 2012, the upcoming FAA reauthorization bill also represents an opportunity for NATA to intervene on behalf of our members in other policy matters.  In preparation for such conversations, our regulatory team consulted with members through our policy committees to help us identify aviation business issues to be raised with policy makers.  Because of your help, we are also emphasizing how Congress can utilize the upcoming legislation to assist industry efforts to improve regulatory consistency at the agency, use its existing resources in a manner that benefits aviation businesses, improve safety, and provide a better investment climate.

Hearings on the development of the FAA reauthorization bill are well underway in Congress. By the time you arrive in Washington, D.C. in June for the 2015 Aviation Business Conference, the debate may be entering a critical phase and the opportunity to share your views with key policymakers will be critical to the future of aviation businesses.

[1] “The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction,” Sandy Streeter, CRS. Page 24

[2] “Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,” Congressional Budget Office. January 15, 2015

By Bill Deere, Senior Vice President for Government and External Affairs

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